Monday, May 20, 2019

Cuba related panels and events at LASA Boston May 24 - 26


This is an incomplete list, created from the topics that caught my attention at the annual convention of the Latin American Studies Association.  Many prospective Cuban participants cannot attend because of the complications of obtaining visas in Havana.  For complete program, click here    https://www.lasaweb.org/uploads/lasa2019-program-final_en.pdf


Friday  9 a.m. film the Cubanos of Harvard

058 // INT - Workshop - Friday, 9:00am - 10:30am, SB Jamaica Pond Security cooperation in the era of Trump: U.S.-Cuba, Europe-Cuba, U.S.-Mexico and Latin America Session Organizer: Geoffrey F Thale, Washington Office on Latin America Chair: Geoffrey F Thale, Washington Office on Latin America Discussant: Santiago Espinosa Bejerano, Centro de Investigaciones de Política Internacional Presenters: Anna Ayuso, Fundación CIDOB Soraya M Castro Mariño, Centro de Investigaciones de Política Internacional adscrito al Instituto Superior de Relaciones Internacionales (ISRI) Noel Martínez Miranda, CIPI / Instituto Superior de Relaciones Internacionales (ISRI)

101 // CUL - Panel - Friday, 10:45am - 12:15pm, SB Hampton A Lazos culturales en el espacio transnacional Session Organizer: Mario Cremata Ferran, Oficina del Historiador Chair: Mario Cremata Ferran, Oficina del Historiador Discussant: Diane de Lourdes Sariol Roque FRIDAY 10:45AM - 12:15PM LASA2019 - 17 América Latina en Rusia: Reflexiones sobre la representación cultural y artística de lo latinoamericano a través del prisma ruso: Santiago Monsalve Salazar, University of Vladimir Russia Bridges Not Walls: un proyecto para el intercambio cultural entre Cuba y Estados Unidos: Yudith Vargas Riverón Centro Histórico de La Habana: gesta rehabilitadora e identidad americanista: Mario Cremata Ferran, Oficina del Historiador Los archivos de música: conexiones histórico-culturales entre Casa de las Américas y el Caribe: Diane de Lourdes Sariol Roque Poesía, música e identidad en los Estados Unidos: Julia de Burgos celebrada en el convulso espejo de Leonard Bernstein: Edgardo M Diaz Diaz, Independent

145 // LAW - Panel - Friday, 12:30pm - 2:00pm, MCP Exeter Cuba's Constitutional Reform Session Organizer: Michel Fernández Pérez Chair: Michel Fernández Pérez Discussant: Mylai Burgos Matamoros, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México (UACM) La nueva reforma constitucional en Cuba. ¿Transición hacia nuevas formas de propiedad¬? Retos y dificultades desde una perspectiva de análisis jurídico: Maria Antonia Hevia Román Nueva consitucion en Cuba, continuidad, ¿y cambio?: Michel Fernández Pérez Reforma ciudadania y migracion en Cuba: Ahmed Correa

159 // ECO - Panel - Friday, 12:30pm - 2:00pm, SB Berkeley B Inclusion within the new Constitution: the role of Social Entrepreneurship in Cuba Sponsor: Center for the Studies of the Cuban Economy Session Organizer: Juan Alejandro Triana Barros, Universidad de La Habana Discussant: Emily M Medley Inclusion, inequalities and opportunities: A glance to the Cuban Private Sector:: Juan Alejandro Triana Barros, Universidad de La Habana The Statist Model of Cuban Entrepreneurship: How “social” is it?: Emily M Medley System of pensions and the Private Sector in Cuba: An opportunity out of the crisis: Henry Colina Hernández

223 // HIS - Panel - Friday, 2:15pm - 3:45pm, SB Fairfax A Local Histories, Regional Histories, Transnational Histories Session Organizer: Guillemette Martin, Universidad Iberoamericana Chair: Yosley Domínguez González Exploration, Exploitation and Creation: The Hybrid Waterscape of Temacapulín, Mexico: Fernando Amador II, PhD Student Güines bajo la sombra de la historia: Yosley Domínguez González Identidad local y regionalismo en perspectiva global y comparada. Los casos de México, Perú y Canadá (finales del siglo XIX-inicios del siglo XX): Guillemette Martin, Universidad Iberoamericana Influencias irlandesas en el pensamiento político cubano del siglo XIX: Dúnyer Jesús Pérez Roque, Oficina del Historiador de Ciudad de La Habana

230 // INT - Roundtable - Friday, 2:15pm - 3:45pm, SB Jamaica Pond People-to-People, State-to-State: The complicated case of U.S. -Cuba travel Session Organizer: Sharon L Wrobel, University of Memphis Chair: Sandra Yisel Ramírez Rodríguez Presenters: Sandra Yisel Ramírez Rodríguez Sharon L Wrobel, University of Memphis Rodrigo H. González Elizabeth Ribalta Rubiera

335 // MIG - Panel - Friday, 5:45pm - 7:15pm, MCP Falmouth La diáspora cubana a través del tiempo e espacio Session Organizer: Cristina C López-Calleja HiortLorenzen, Universidad de La Habana Chair: Leduan Ramírez Pérez Las migraciones desde Cuba hacia el mundo y viceversa; consecuencias políticas, económicas y demográficas.: Cristina C López-Calleja Hiort-Lorenzen, Universidad de La Habana Las relaciones migratorias entre Cuba y los Estados Unidos. La crisis de Boca de Camarioca de 1965 como caso de estudio: Dayana Menéndez Pérez Características, tipologías y proyecciones de los contactos y prácticas transnacionales de los migrantes cubanos en México (1990-2017): Leduan Ramírez Pérez Ni secos ni mojados: apuntes de la historia reciente de la emigración en Cuba: Ivyliet Ventura Kesse

WELCOME CEREMONY Friday, May 24, 7:30 pm Hotel: Marriott Copley Place Room: Salon E All registered participants are invited to attend the LASA2019 Welcome Ceremony. LASA awards for this year will be announced during this ceremony including a brief recognition of awardees. WELCOME RECEPTION Friday, May 24, 8:30 pm Hotel: Marriott Copley Place Room: Salon E and F All registered participants are invited to attend the LASA2019 Welcome Reception following the Welcome Ceremony. 

THE LASA2019 BOOK EXHIBIT Friday, May 24 – Monday, May 27 Hotel: Marriott Copley Place Room: Gloucester Hall The book exhibit hours will be: Friday, May 24 9:30 am – 7:30 pm Saturday, May 25 9:30 am – 7:30 pm Sunday, May 26 9:30 am – 7:30 pm Monday, May 27 9:30 am – 12:30 pm Admission to the book exhibit is free for registered attendees

433 // EDU - Panel - Saturday, 10:45am - 12:15pm, SB Beacon C Academic Exchanges: Their Role in Promoting International Understanding and Inclusion Sponsor: The Cuba Program, Columbia University Session Organizer: Margaret E Crahan, Columbia University Chair: Philip Brenner, American University Discussant: Margaret E Crahan, Columbia University Retando lo conocido: Giselle Garcia Castro, RTV Comercial Overcoming a Long Legacy of Distrust in US-Cuba Relations: The Role of Educational Exhanges: Teresa Juana Garcia Castro, Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA) Coming to America (in the Trump Era): Harold Cardenas Lema It's Different: A Case Study of Objectives in Career Development in Cuba and the US: Jesus Noel Boucourt Vega, UCSD's School of Global Policy and Strategy

449 // ECO - Panel - Saturday, 10:45am - 12:15pm, SB Fairfax B Economía política, crecimiento y equidad en las condiciones actuales de Cuba Session Organizer: Mauricio De Miranda Parrondo, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali Chair: Omar Everleny Pérez Villanueva, Centro Cristiano de Reflexión y Diálogo, Cuba Discussant: Pavel Vidal Alejandro, Universidad Javeriana Cali Los problemas de la propiedad y el funcionamiento económico en la economía política de la reforma en la nueva Constitución cubana.: Mauricio De Miranda Parrondo, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali La reforma (actualización) del modelo económico y el nivel de vida de la población de Cuba.: José Luis R Rodríguez, CIEM Crecimiento, equidad y política fiscal en Cuba.: Pedro Manuel Monreal González, UNESCO Desigualdades sociales en Cuba en el contexto de la actualización del modelo económico: retos y desafíos: Denisse Delgado, University of Massachusetts, Boston

500 // PIP - Panel - Saturday, 12:30pm - 2:00pm, SB Fairfax B Cuba After Castro: A New Model of “Prosperous and Sustainable” Socialism Session Organizer: William M LeoGrande, American University Chair: Philip Brenner, American University Discussant: William M LeoGrande, American University Cuba’s Emerging Economic Model: Ricardo Torres Pérez, University of Havana Cuban Foreign Policy from Raúl to Díaz-Canel: John M Kirk, Dalhousie University

518 // BIO - Panel - Saturday, 12:30pm - 2:00pm, SB Arnold Arboretum Justicia ambiental en clave de equidad social. Aportes desde experiencias comunitarias cubanas Session Organizer: Mirlena Rojas Piedrahita, Centro de Investigaciones Psicológicas y Sociológicas (CIPS). Ministerio de Ciencia Tecnología y Medio Ambiente Chair: Jusmary Gómez Arencibia La metodología de Mapa Verde desde la perspectiva de la equidad social: Liana Margarita Bidart Cisneros La participación ciudadana desde un enfoque de equidad social. Miradas desde comunidades SATURDAY 12:30PM - 2:00PM LASA2019 - 88 cubanas: María de los Ángeles Vilaboy Rodríguez, Centro Félix Varela “Con todos y para el bien de todos”: la transformación medioambiental desde la articulación local: Mirlena Rojas Piedrahita, Centro de Investigaciones Psicológicas y Sociológicas (CIPS). Ministerio de Ciencia Tecnología y Medio Ambiente; Gustavo Blanco Vale

565 // ECO - Panel - Saturday, 2:15pm - 3:45pm, SB Berkeley B Economic Transition in Cuba Chair: Paul Johnson, Chicago Foods International / US Agriculture Coalition for Cuba Growing relations with Cuba from the ground up; a case for U.S. and Cuba agriculture cooperation: Paul Johnson, Chicago Foods International / US Agriculture Coalition for Cuba El trabajo privado, su obligatoria inclusión a partir del impacto en el desarrollo local: Suilán Rodríguez Trasancos, Casa de las Américas

573 // ECO - Roundtable - Saturday, 2:15pm - 3:45pm, SB Fairfax B ¿Hacia dónde va el cuentapropismo en Cuba? Un conversatorio abierto entre académicos y cuentapropistas Session Organizer: Ted A Henken, City University of New York/Baruch College Presenters: Ted A Henken, City University of New SATURDAY 2:15PM - 3:45PM LASA2019 - 97 York/Baruch College Ricardo Torres Pérez, University of Havana Denisse Delgado, University of Massachusetts, Boston Oniel Diaz Castellanos Camilo Condis Mojena, Artecorte
583 // MIG - Panel - Saturday, 2:15pm - 3:45pm, MCP Falmouth Mapping Exile and Displacement Session Organizer: Guillermo J Grenier, Florida International University Chair: Maria Aysa-Lastra, Winthrop University From Conflict to Peace: Economic and Social Integration of Internally Displaced Persons in Colombia: Maria Aysa-Lastra, Winthrop University El Fin de «Exilio»: Evaluando los cambios de opiniones hacia Cuba y su gobierno dentro de la diáspora del sur de la Florida después de sesenta años de su creación: Guillermo J Grenier, Florida International University La integración social de la población refugiada en España: Juan Iglesias, Prof. International Migration Institute. Univ. P. Comillas. Mapping displacements of Brazilian political exiled (1960s-1970s): Elisa Klüger, CEBRAP / Princeton

588 // SEC - LASA Section Workshops - Saturday, 2:15pm - 3:45pm, SB Clarendon “Nuestra América” de José Martí: concepto, práctica y trascendencia Sponsor: Cuba Centro de Estudios Martianos, Cuba. Session Organizer: Pedro Pablo Rodriguez Lopez, Centro de Estudios Martianos Discussant: Ofelia M Schutte, University of South Florida Presenters: Mayra Beatriz Martínez, Centro de Estudios Martianos Lisandro Pérez, John Jay College, City University of New York Vivian Auffant Adriana I Novoa, University of South Florida Mario Juan Valdés Navia

595 // INT - Panel - Saturday, 2:15pm - 3:45pm, SB Riverway Relaciones Cuba-EE.UU.: Donald Trump y los cambios en el contexto latinoamericano Session Organizer: Claudia Marín, Centro de Investigaciones de Política Internacional Chair: Noel Martínez Miranda, CIPI / Instituto Superior de Relaciones Internacionales (ISRI) Cambios en la integración regional: el nuevo contexto político y las relaciones América Latina y el Caribe – EE.UU. bajo la administración Trump: Claudia Marín, Centro de Investigaciones de Política Internacional El dilema de la lucha contra el narcotráfico y otros delitos conexos en torno al conflicto Cuba y Estados Unidos: Santiago Espinosa Bejerano, Centro de Investigaciones de Política Internacional Cuba en la política exterior de Estados Unidos hacia América Latina bajo la presidencia de Donald Trump: Noel Martínez Miranda, CIPI / Instituto Superior de Relaciones Internacionales (ISR


Saturday 3:00 – 3:30 p.m. Rice in the Time of Sugar: The Political Economy of Food in Cuba (University of North Carolina Press) - Louis A. Perez Jr

625 // LAT - Workshop - Saturday, 4:00pm - 5:30pm, MCP Salon C Cuba – U.S. Relations in the 19th Century and Now: Emilia – An Untold Latinx Story Session Organizer: Lillian Manzor, University of Miami Chair: Lillian Manzor, University of Miami Presenters: Carmen E Lamas, University of Virginia Lisandro Pérez, John Jay College, City University of New York


The Cuban Revolution 60 Years Later Saturday, May 25 4:00 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. Location: Boston Marriott Copley Place Hotel, Salon E Organizers: Carlos A. Aguirre (University of Oregon) Lynn M. Stephen (University of Oregon) Chair: Alejandro De La Fuente (Harvard University) Presenters: Zuleica Romay (Casa de las Américas) Carlos Alzugaray Treto (Revista Temas) Carmelo Mesa-Lago (University of Pittsburgh) Lillian Guerra (University of Florida) ABSTRACT On January 1, 1959, Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista fled the country; a week later, revolutionary troops led by Fidel Castro entered Havana to the jubilation of most Cubans, who saw in them the promise of a democratic, egalitarian, and sovereign society. The revolutionary victory changed the course of history for Cuba and the entire Western Hemisphere and effectively improved the lives of most Cubans through radical social reforms. Over the next few years the United States punished Cuba with an economic embargo and other measures, Fidel declared the socialist nature of the revolution, a single-party system was imposed, and political opposition was banned. Today, 60 years later, many things have changed, but many others remain in place. The revolution’s goals and promises continue to inspire and mobilize people in Cuba and beyond, but the challenges and setbacks it has faced are also part of its legacy. This session will address the various dimensions of the past, present, and future of the revolution.


675 // MTG - Meeting - Saturday, 5:45pm - 7:15pm, SB Commonwealth Cuba Section- Business Meeting Contact Person: Carlos Alzugaray Treto, Revista Temas

681 // ECO - Panel - Saturday, 5:45pm - 7:15pm, SB Berkeley B El emprendimiento privado en Cuba, trazos en una nación que se transforma. Su visión desde CubaEmprende Session Organizer: William Bello Sánchez Chair: Raydel García López Discussant: William Bello Sánchez CubaEmprende como referente de capacitación de los negocios privados en Cuba, su evolución e impacto: Jorge Mandilego Los negocios privados en Cuba, perspectivas en el presente y futuro de la nación. Un acercamiento desde la impronta de CubaEmprende: William Bello Sánchez Posicionamiento del emprendimiento privado cubano, en el contexto de las tran

749 // CUL - Panel - Sunday, 9:00am - 10:30am, MCP Exeter Desigualdades en la sociedad cubana. Miradas desde las Ciencias sociales, la Educación, y las subjetividades Session Organizer: Rodrigo Espina Prieto, Instituto Cubano de Investigación Cultural Juan Marinello Chair: Elaine Morales Chuco, Instituto Cubano de Investigación Cultural "Juan Marinello" Discussant: Fernando Luis Rojas López Las desigualdades sociales en las ciencias sociales cubanas. Una mirada hacia la última década: Rodrigo Espina Prieto, Instituto Cubano de Investigación Cultural Juan Marinello Identidades juveniles y desigualdades sociales en Cuba: Elaine Morales Chuco, Instituto Cubano de Investigación Cultural "Juan Marinello" Apropiación comunicacional y esfera pública: de la participación a la inclusión: Beatriz Drake

782 // GEN - Panel - Sunday, 9:00am - 10:30am, SB Beacon F Searching for Gender Equality through Activism and Constitutional Reforms Session Organizer: Yamila González Ferrer, Universidad de La Habana, Unión Nacional de Juristas de Cuba Discussant: Myrna Beatriz Méndez López, Universidad de Oriente Igualdad de género en el constitucionalismo cubano: Yamila González Ferrer, Universidad de La Habana, Unión Nacional de Juristas de Cuba Igualdad y genero desde la jurisprudencia constitucional iberoamericana: Leonardo B Pérez Gallardo La confección de artesanías textiles en Azajo, México: una vía para el empoderamiento de las mujeres p’urhépechas: Lorena Ojeda-Davila, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo LUGAR DE MULHER A participação da Indígena nos Movimentos Feministas e Indígenas do Estado do Amazonas: Ivânia Maria C Vieira, Universidade Federal do Amazonas Narrarse mujer, narrarse hombre: narrarse desde el género en las distintas etapas de vida: Andrea Vizcaíno, El Colegio de México

784 // MIG - Panel - Sunday, 9:00am - 10:30am, MCP Yarmouth Spaces of Exclusion, Inclusions and Return Session Organizer: Amy L Cohen, Okanagan College On the Margins: Migrant Farmworkers and Public Space in British Columbia, Canada: Amy L Cohen, Okanagan College; Susana Caxaj Educational Equity in the Context of Post-Disaster Displacement: Teachers and Students Explore Transnational Space and Place in Florida and Puerto Rico: Molly Hamm-Rodriguez, University of Colorado Boulder; Astrid N Sambolín Morales, University of Colorado Boulder Derechos sociales de los migrantes de retorno: un nuevo escenario para las políticas públicas en América Latina. El caso de Cuba (2013-2018): Ileana Sorolla Fernandez, Universidad de La Habana Representaciones de mujeres migrantes retornadas a Colombia: resignificando imaginarios: Tatiana Caceres, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

788 // HIS - Panel - Sunday, 9:00am - 10:30am, SB Fairfax A The Harvard Cubans Session Organizer: Danny González Lucena Chair: Rainer G Schultz, Harvard University, CASA / Casa de las Américas Discussant: Erin Goodman, DRCLAS, Harvard University The Harvard Summer School for Cuban Teachers: Cultural Exchange, Racism, Feminism, and Nationalism: Marial I Utset, Harvard University; Danny González Lucena Más allá de Harvard, 1900: analogues for later times: Michael Bustamante, Florida International University ¿Hacia una escuela cubana en Cuba libre? On the impact of Harvard Summer School on Cuban pedagogy: Rainer G Schultz, Harvard University, CASA / Casa de las Américas


Lars Schoultz Winner of the 2019 Kalman Silvert Award KALMAN SILVERT AWARD PRESENTATION Sunday, May 26, 10:45 a.m. – 12:15 p.m. Hotel: Marriott Copley / Room: Salon E

844 // INT - Panel - Sunday, 10:45am - 12:15pm, SB Jamaica Pond SUNDAY 10:45AM - 12:15PM LASA2019 - 140 The Foreign Policy of the Cuban Revolution: 1959 The Turning Point Session Organizer: Raúl Rodríguez Rodríguez, Universidad de La Habana Chair: John M Kirk, Dalhousie University Discussant: Lana Wylie, McMaster University Canada and Cuba: Engagement and Dialogue: Raúl Rodríguez Rodríguez, Universidad de La Habana Spain and Cuba: A very special relationship.: Joaquín Roy, University of Miami Havana, Moscow and Global Politics: Mervyn John Bain, Universidad de Aberdeen

887 // EDU - Panel - Sunday, 12:30pm - 2:00pm, SB Beacon D La universidad cubana en la actualización del modelo económico y social inclusivo y justo Session Organizer: Mariela Montesino Rodríguez, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana (UCMH - MINSAP) Chair: Ana María M Durán Fonseca, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana (UCMH - MINSAP) La actualización del modelo socialista cubano: un proyecto de participación colectiva de nación y de justicia e inclusión social: Rafael Emilio Cervantes Martínez, Ministerio de Educación Superior de la República de Cuba La actualización del modelo económico y social cubano como eje integrador y de participación social en los procesos sustantivos de la Educación Superior: Lucilo Batlle Reyes, Ministerio de Educación Superior de la República de Cuba La participación de las universidades cubanas en proyectos socioculturales y comunitarios para el desarrollo local: Yusmila Zamora Silva, Ministerio de Educación Superior de la República de Cuba Universidad y desarrollo local en el contexto actual y futuro: Jorge Núñez Jover, Universidad de La Habana

890 // INT - Panel - Sunday, 12:30pm - 2:00pm, SB Riverway Más allá de Trump: Retos y oportunidades para el retorno al proceso hacia la normalización de relaciones Cuba-Estados Unidos Session Organizer: Soraya M Castro Mariño, Centro de Investigaciones de Política Internacional adscrito al Instituto Superior de Relaciones Internacionales (ISRI) Chair: Mario N Bronfman, Ford Foundation Trump and His Advisers: Impact on the Molding of US Foreign Policy: Margaret E Crahan, Columbia University A Detour on the Road to Normalization: U.S.-Cuban Relations During Donald Trump’s Presidency: William M LeoGrande, American University Las Relaciones Cuba-Estados Unidos: Perspectivas sobre el proceso hacia la normalización bajo la Administración de Donald Trump: Soraya M Castro Mariño, Centro de Investigaciones de Política Internacional adscrito al Instituto Superior de Relaciones Internacionales (ISRI) Strategies for Advancing Empathy in the US-Cuban Relationship: Philip Brenner, American University Desafíos y oportunidades desde las representaciones sociales en la construcción del diálogo entre Cuba y EE.UU.: Sunamis Fabelo

899 // HIS - Panel - Sunday, 12:30pm - 2:00pm, SB Fairfax A Nuevas perspectivas sociales, políticas y culturales sobre la Revolución cubana Session Organizer: Jose A De Leon Gonzalez, Harvard University Chair: Eloise L Linger, State University of NewYork/Old Westbury From Coca-Cola to Cola-Cultura: Time, Lines, and Patterns of Consumption in 1980s Cuba: Alexis Baldacci, Bates College Isla piloto del comunismo: una historización de las políticas y los lenguajes de radicalización en los últimos años sesenta en Cuba: Jose A De Leon Gonzalez, Harvard University Biografía intelectual de Haydée Santamaría: Karem Tiffany Castañón Hernández Toward a more inclusive History of the Cuban Revolution of 1959: Eloise L Linger, State University of NewYork/Old Westbury


922 // MIG - Panel - Sunday, 2:15pm - 3:45pm, MCP Orleans Comunidad china en Cuba: asociacionismo, inclusión y participación Session Organizer: Raúl Pérez Monzón, Universidad de La Habana Chair: María Teresa Montes de Oca Choy, Universidad de La Habana Cuba: el impacto de la Revolución en la comunidad china: Raúl Pérez Monzón, Universidad de La Habana Presente y futuro del asociacionismo en la Cuba del siglo XXI. Las sociedades chinas: María Teresa Montes de Oca Choy, Universidad de La Habana

929 // SEC - LASA Section Workshops - Sunday, 2:15pm - 3:45pm, MCP Vineyard Dictadura, insurgencia e infancia: niños de nuestra América en la Cuba revolucionaria Sponsor: Cuba Session Organizer: Iraida H López, Ramapo College of New Jersey Chair: Iraida H López, Ramapo College of New Jersey Discussant: Julio César Guanche Zaldívar, Unión de Escritores y Artistas de Cuba (UNEAC) Presenters: Macarena Aguiló Marchi Virginia Ines I Croatto Alejandro Ramírez Anderson, Instituto Cubano del Arte e Industria Cinematográficos (ICAIC) Jorge Barudy Labrin Susana C Brardinelli


982 // LAB - Panel - Sunday, 4:00pm - 5:30pm, MCP Boyslton Cambio en los modelos de efectividad organizacional en las empresas cubanas. Session Organizer: Zoe Bello Chair: Adalberto Ávila Vidal, Universidad de La Habana Diagnóstico de la efectividad organizacional en empresas cubanas.: Adalberto Ávila Vidal, Universidad de La Habana Potenciación de recursos sociopsicológicos para el trabajo en equipo en procesos de cambio e innovación.: Maiky Díaz Pérez Competencias para la gestión eficaz de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo.: Arianne Medina Macias La gestión emocional en el ámbito organizacional.: Zoe Bello


1036 // PIP - Workshop - Sunday, 5:45pm - 7:15pm, MCP Wellesley Authoritarian politics in contemporary Venezuela Session Organizer: Raul A Sanchez Urribarri, La Trobe University Chair: Margarita López Maya, Universidad Central de Venezuela/CENDES Presenters: Jennifer M Cyr, University of Arizona Maryhen G Jiménez Morales, University of Oxford Víctor M Mijares, Universidad de los Andes, Colombia

1057 // HIS - Panel - Sunday, 5:45pm - 7:15pm, SB Gardner B Energy, Environment, and Power Relations in Modern Cuba: An Interdisciplinary History, 19th-21st Centuries Session Organizer: Eric Gettig, Georgetown University Chair: Reinaldo Funes-Monzote, Universidad de La Habana Discussant: Reinaldo Funes-Monzote, Universidad de La Habana Cuba Between Energy Empires: Deforestation, Sugar and Slavery, Fossil-Fuel Capitalism, and Transnational Development Visions in the Circum-Caribbean and Atlantic Worlds, 19th-20th Centuries: Eric Gettig, Georgetown University The quest for energy alternatives and sustainable development in post-1959 Cuba: Helen Yaffe, University of Glasgow Maintaining Power: Decarbonization and Recentralization in Cuba’s Energy Revolution: Gustav Cederlof


1076 // ECO - Panel - Sunday, 5:45pm - 7:15pm, SB Berkeley B Opciones de inserción internacional en las nuevas condiciones de la economía cubana Session Organizer: Mauricio De Miranda Parrondo, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali Chair: Pavel Vidal Alejandro, Universidad Javeriana Cali Discussant: Mauricio De Miranda Parrondo, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali Papel de la inversión extranjera directa en el desarrollo económico en Cuba: Omar Everleny Pérez Villanueva, Centro Cristiano de Reflexión y Diálogo, Cuba The Cuban Tourism Industry: Evolution, Challenges, and Prospects: Paolo Spadoni, Augusta University Cuba's 'hedge' policy and Asia: Kanako Yamaoka, Institute of Developing Economics

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Threat to University Programs in Cuba


On the agenda of the upcoming NAFSA and LASA conventions should be discussion of the danger of renewed restrictions on travel to Cuba.  If National Security Adviser John Bolton is to be taken seriously, drastic steps are on the horizon to eliminate all forms of travel long denounced by his Western Hemisphere director Mauricio Claver-Carone as "veiled tourism".  https://conta.cc/2XH1phf

Presumably safe, if policy returns only to the Bush era, are semester long academic programs.  However the cumbersome and costly process to obtain specific licenses from the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) could be reimposed.  More vulnerable are the short-term faculty led introductory or special interest visits currently conducted under the general license for people to people educational travel.  This is the same category used by virtually all escorted tour groups, a prime target during the Obama administration of Claver-Carone.  We hope that participation in professional conferences and trips for research purposes will not be affected, but restored regulatory requirements could affect both individual scholars and their institutions.

Like earlier Administration threats, Bolton's speech could come to almost nothing.  Based on economic self-interest, cruise companies and airlines presumably are using their considerable lobbying power in Washington to push back, although so far they have not sought to mobilize the more than one million Americans they have carried to Cuba.  As importantly, President Trump is reported to be increasingly disenchanted with Bolton's hard line and the risk of overt conflict with Iran and Venezuela/Cuba as well as North Korea.  A petition responding to Bolton is here https://tinyurl.com/nobolton

We are interested in knowing the thoughts of academic exchange specialists and their institutions as well as the impact on next year's schedule.  Public comments can be posted below.  Private or longer comments can be sent to director@ffrd.org

Thinking optimistically, Cuba's 12th International Congress of Higher Education, Universidad 2020, has been scheduled for Havana February 10-14.  It offers an unequaled opportunity to meet people from the nationwide system of Cuban higher education.  IIE has sponsored a booth in the past as has our organization, the Fund for Reconciliation and Development.  Details here http://www.congressouniversidad.cu

Exchange specialists are welcome to join our July 20-28 program that will introduce the potential of Santiago and Guantanamo for faculty led trips focused on a special cultural event (Carnival), US-Cuba history, and current policy (the base).  Informal meetings with staff from the Universities of Santiago and Guantanamo are included.  Cost will be under $2000 plus air for participants using a casa particular (bed and breakfast), about $500 more for a hotel.  Information here https://tinyurl.com/Santiagonew

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Cuba Bets on Tourism



Cuba bets on tourism as new U.S. travel and economic restrictions take hold



Cuba bets on tourism as new U.S. travel and economic restrictions take hold
An old American car drives past the Riviera Hotel on May 7, 2019. Cuba welcomed 1.93 million visitors in the first four months of the year, a 7% increase from 2018. (Yamil Lage / AFP/Getty Images)
The battle for Cuba's economic future is being waged on its beaches. And at its all-inclusive resorts, dive sites and cobblestoned colonial plazas.
As most of Cuba's economy stagnates or declines, the country has launched a full-scale effort to turn virtually the only bright spot — tourism — into an engine that can pull the rest of the communist island out of its worst economic crisis in two decades. In government meetings and propaganda, it has now set a goal of drawing 5 million tourists in 2019 — perhaps the modern-day equivalent of its Soviet-era dependence on the annual sugar-harvest production."In the middle of the hardening of the blockade on Cuba, the activation of Title III of Helms-Burton by the president of the United States, we're assuming responsibility for injecting foreign exchange and developing the economy," said Ivis Fernandez, the top tourism official in Matanzas province, home to the beach resort town of Varadero.
Across the Florida Straits, the Trump administration is intently focused on scaling back tourism to the island as part of a campaign to smother the Cuban economy and force its government to sever ties with President Nicolas Maduro's government in Venezuela.

President Trump recently activated a section of the 1996 U.S. law known as Helms-Burton, allowing lawsuits against foreign companies doing business on properties confiscated after the island's socialist revolution. His administration has also pledged to limit the legal reasons under which Americans can visit Cuba, saying too many people are disguising illegal tourism as educational, religious or other types of travel. The U.S. has also prohibited Americans from patronizing a series of hotels and other facilities run by the military conglomerate that controls many of the most important sectors of the Cuban economy.
But despite the restrictive measures, the Cuban government is only doubling down on its bet that tourism to one of the world's last communist nations will continue to surge.
Cuba began to open the island to tourists after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent loss of billions of dollars a year in aid. In 1996, Cuba had 30,000 state-owned hotel rooms and about a million tourists a year.
Last year it had about 70,000 rooms, with an additional 24,000 in privately owned bed-and-breakfasts.
In total, Cuba drew 4.7 million tourists in 2018, a 1.3% rise over the previous year that puts its latest goal of 5 million within reach. Visits to the island are already running 7% higher than the same period last year, when about 639,000 U.S. travelers took a trip, the highest of any nationality except Canada.
Official figures show that 257,000 Americans visited Cuba in the first four months of 2019, a 93% increase over the same period last year. Meanwhile, about 142,000 came on cruise ships, a form of travel that remains legal and is largely responsible for the rising number of American travelers to Cuba. Only 40,000 American cruise passengers visited Cuba in the first four months of 2018.
But even so, challenges loom large on an island whose most important business sectors are in varying states of shambles.


In this May 12, 2019, photo, Hotel Royalton staff entertain tourists during a beach party in Varadero, Cuba. The island nation has set a goal of drawing 5 million tourists in 2019.
In this May 12, 2019, photo, Hotel Royalton staff entertain tourists during a beach party in Varadero, Cuba. The island nation has set a goal of drawing 5 million tourists in 2019. (Ismael Francisco / Associated Press)
Cuba is currently trying to revive businesses ranging from agriculture to textiles by turning them into part of the supply chain for the tourism business. State-run factories, warehouses and workshops are largely in disrepair after years of embargo and central planning, and many of the millions earned by hotels and tour buses must be turned around and spent on imported goods ranging from food to bedsheets.
In a country full of mango and guava trees that are laden with rich, plump fruit nearly year round, it's also not unusual to see imported tropical fruits and juices at hotel breakfast buffets as Cuba's decrepit agricultural sector struggles to find a way to move enough produce to satisfy visitors.
"The big problem with tourism as a foreign-exchange earner is the amount of importing that it has to do," said Jose Luis Perello, an economist and expert on tourism. "In order to keep developing tourism we need national industry to become more dynamic."
If the Trump administration is successful, the island might never get the chance.
Along with the collapse of the Venezuelan economy and the reduced amount of cheap oil the Maduro government sends to Cuba, increased U.S. pressure is blamed for a cash crisis that has forced the country to start rationing basic foods such as eggs and chicken and limit power consumption by state-run enterprises.
"They're going after Cuba's strengths, in this case the tourism sector, and trying to seek out its vulnerabilities," Raul Rodriguez, director of the University of Havana's Center of Hemisphere and U.S. Studies, wrote in a recent article in independent journal Temas. "Boosting sanctions is an attempt to bankrupt the Cuban state."
Still, experts say that the state-run tourism sector brings in $3 billion a year and the private side brings in the same, despite being nearly one-third the size. In a country where food lines are growing, aid from Venezuela is dwindling and industries such as nickel and sugar are mostly stagnant, tourism also might be one of the only ways forward.
On the paradise-like beaches of Varadero, small crabs crawl out of sand dunes and groups of tourists seem to forget their worries as they laze in the sun.
The city has 21,200 hotel rooms and is trying to build 1,000 more a year for at least the next five years, managed in partnership with hospitality giants Melia and Barcelo of Spain and Fiesta Americana of Mexico.
Although Spanish hotel chain Iberostar could be a major potential target of lawsuits under the activation of the Helms-Burton provision, owner Miguel Fluxa did not appear worried at an international tourism fair last week.
"I do not know” what is going to happen with Helms-Burton, he said. "The only thing that I know is that any step we have taken we have taken according to the law."


My comment

This is inaccurate: "His administration has also pledged to limit the legal reasons under which Americans can visit Cuba, saying too many people are disguising illegal tourism as educational, religious or other types of travel." 

John Bolton's speech in Florida should not be read as the definitive position of the Trump Administration. 

I wrote immediately afterwards that Bolton might be ahead of his skis [a]https://conta.cc/2XH1phf[/a] . The increasingly obvious distance between his neo-con war mongering and Trump's anti-interventionism (North Korea, Iran, Venezuela) makes it ever more likely that harsh restrictions on Cuba travel will not be promulgated. 

However, damage has already been done as can be confirmed by travel agents and tour operators

Like the misinterpretation that the previous policy change had ended independent travel (rather than just transferring it to another category), misleading reports like this are self-fulfilling prophecies that help scare off people for months--as was presumably intended by the likely author of Bolton's words, Western Hemisphere NSC director and long time anti-Cuba lobbyist Mauricio Claver-Carone.


Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Venezuela Post 9 Stratfor and International Crisis Group



Perspective of Stratfor  conservative analysts

January 25 2019 22:52:50 GMT

Trouble Awaits Any Military Intervention in Venezuela 


there are several reasons why an external military intervention in Venezuela would be no cakewalk. For one thing, even if sizable portions of the armed forces might balk at turning their weapons on fellow citizens, an invasion could galvanize them to circle their wagons against an external aggressor. And in contrast to Libya's military on the eve of the 2011 intervention that ultimately toppled Moammar Gadhafi, Venezuela's armed forces are much better equipped and enjoy much more advantageous terrain. What's more, Venezuela could receive increased external support from allies such as Russia, which could further complicate plans for an intervention.

Any external military action against Venezuela would, in all likelihood, involve a significant air campaign whose first and foremost goal would be to gain air supremacy over the skies. The only country equipped to conduct such a campaign is the United States. Colombia and Brazil — two regional heavyweights that are staunchly opposed to the Maduro government — lack the aircraft necessary to neutralize the Venezuelan Air Force and its air defenses independently. And even if Venezuelan pilots lack the skills of their Brazilian and Colombian counterparts, they boast an advantage thanks to their superior combat aircraft, especially the Russian-made Su-30MK2. Brazil, for example, will only begin to address this technological imbalance this year, when the country acquires its first batch of Swedish JAS 39E Gripen fighters. 

A military intervention could quickly snowball into one of the largest worldwide military operations since the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

A U.S. air campaign would undoubtedly decimate the Venezuelan air force, but it would require a considerable effort to also suppress and destroy the country's surface-to-air missile batteries on the ground. This would be a complicated endeavor, particularly as Venezuelan air defense units, unlike Gadhafi's forces, would benefit from the mobility of their systems and the abundance of dense urban and jungle terrain. Furthermore, the Venezuelan army as a whole is very large — even before adding in various paramilitary formations — and relatively well-equipped with light and heavy weapons. With such forces also able to benefit from the same dense urban and jungle terrain, it would require an extended air campaign to grind them down if they were to continue active resistance. 

Logistical Nightmares

Unless an intervention triggered a mass uprising that quickly toppled the government, any effort to accelerate the campaign with a ground invasion would face its share of problems as well. Given Venezuela's sheer size and population, an intervening country or countries would require a sizable military force. Such an army would then need to confront the problem of choosing a route into Venezuela. A direct intervention by sea is inherently risky because amphibious operations are one of the most complicated and dangerous military maneuvers. Overland invasion routes from Colombia or Brazil also face difficult terrain, complicated logistics and extended supply lines that would be vulnerable to guerrilla attack. In effect, a military intervention could quickly snowball into one of the largest worldwide military operations since the 2003 invasion of Iraq. 

All of these constraints highlight how a military intervention in Venezuela is not comparable to previous interventions in the region, such as Grenada (1983), Haiti (1994-1995) or Panama (1989-1990). Nor is it particularly similar to the 2011 intervention in Libya. Venezuela's size, population, terrain, and weaponry ensure that a long military campaign would be almost inevitable if the initial action doesn't quickly topple Maduro's government or trigger a collapse in the armed forces. And even if an attacking force were successful, the leaders of a military intervention would be faced with a very messy aftermath in which they would have to suddenly shift from offensive operations to propping up the new government and support its efforts to rebuild a broken economy and food distribution system — to say nothing about the prospect of dealing with possible attacks from disenfranchised Chavista forces in a protracted insurgency. And then there are other pressing issues, such as forced migration, the effect of conflict on the energy market or the potential proliferation of weapons and violence. Simply put, overthrowing Maduro through external intervention is unlikely to provide a shortcut to resolving Venezuela's myriad problems.

https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/trouble-awaits-any-military-intervention-venezuela-us-trump-brazil-colombia#

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International Crisis Group

“Honoring one of U.S.’ greatest military fiascos from 60 years back suggests U.S. policy to Latin America owes more now to a perverse Cold War nostalgia than practical benefits for people of the region,” said Ivan Briscoe, the Latin American director for the International Crisis Group, a Brussels-based think tank.
http://time.com/5572787/trump-cuba-nicaragua-venezuela/



Will Pressure Bring Down Venezuela’s Government?

“We are not prepared for a long regime of sanctions”, states one very prominent chavista’s chief of staff. “I think we overestimate our power to resist and underestimate the capacity of gringo sanctions to pressure us”.

A Worried Inner Circle


The circle closest to Maduro – estimated by Elliott Abrams, U.S. special representative for Venezuela, to number ten to twenty people – is not, as critics often suggest, unaware of the scale of the country’s hastening disaster. By giving its consent to the Red Cross to begin distributing humanitarian aid in Venezuela, the government in effect acknowledged the reality of public destitution. Other global humanitarian bodies report direct approaches from the government to begin relief operations. ...


But the government portrays this extreme deprivation as part of a war of attrition, with each new adversity giving a pretext for government leaders or powerful chavista factions to crack down on the opposition with yet more venom.

The inner circle is also conscious that refusing to yield to any opposition demand – with the exception of accepting humanitarian relief – and shunning the gestures that could help initiate serious negotiations could bring catastrophe. A senior chavista identifies three scenarios in which the government could find itself obliged to talk: mass public disorder, akin to the 1989 Caracazo riots that followed a hike in fuel prices, led to hundreds of deaths and helped pave the way for the rise of Chávez; rifts between the civilian and military wings of government; and foreign military intervention....

But several sources close to government note that, even in these extreme cases, civilian leaders may not back down from unbending resistance. The armed forces, led by Defence Minister Vladimir Padrino López, may well need to persuade them to do so. ...

Some pragmatists in the opposition are displeased that the Trump administration’s unstinting backing for Guaidó has often taken the form of vows to roll back socialism in the Americas or restore the Monroe Doctrine. Yet others do not mind such rhetorical flourishes: Washington, in the words of one top Guaidó ally, is the “bad cop” offering protection for the smiling “good cop” who will eventually prevail.

  
Not all members of the opposition, however, think it wise for Guaidó to be associated with the sanctions that are deepening Venezuelans’ hardship and triggering sporadic mayhem. ...


figures from both government and opposition in private call for restraint and compromise. International efforts to push for a negotiated solution or to create the conditions under which peace talks could take place, above all the EU-backed International Contact Group, are intensifying. Formulas for unblocking the stalemate between the two sides are proliferating, while secret channels for talks are burrowing underneath the lines. Leading chavistas now speak candidly of the conditions under which they would accept new elections and a possible period in opposition. “Well, at least we had 20 years in power”, says one, stoically, “and the oligarchy had nearly 200”. Leading opposition figures court heresy by accepting that Maduro could stay in office until these new elections are held, possibly by presiding over a government of technocrats.


But these initiatives may fail to yield more than soothing chatter unless they resolve the fundamental differences that the pressure campaign is, if anything, deepening rather than mitigating. Even for pragmatists in the opposition, no negotiation is possible without a clear show of good faith from the government, given the failures of previous rounds of talks. To them, good faith means a landmark concession: a commitment that the government will accept losing power, restoration of the National Assembly’s authority or sweeping reform of the discredited National Electoral Council as a first step toward early elections....


In the government’s eyes, meanwhile, the economic suffocation that should in theory be encouraging them to consider negotiations instead prompts them to believe that the opposition and Washington desire not the restoration of democracy, but, in the words of one recent minister, the “political annihilation of chavismo”. Whereas the opposition demands a token of government sincerity to begin peace talks, the chavistas insist on guarantees of fair treatment at the end of the process. They wish to ensure that their movement will be respected as a political force, that they will not be prosecuted or exposed to a witch hunt, and that the new government will respect their social policies. They insist that they should be entitled to take part in new elections if these occur, and keep power if they are victorious. And they are adamant that no guarantee or pledge to respect their demands can be trusted so long as the U.S. maintains support for Guaidó´s “parallel government” and imposes sanctions that will not be lifted barring the chavistas’ total surrender....



Picking Up the Pieces After Venezuela’s Quashed Uprising



 A failed uprising by Venezuelan National Assembly Chair Juan Guaidó has emboldened President Nicolás Maduro and deepened the country's political deadlock. However difficult, outside actors should continue to press the two sides to form a transitional cabinet, stabilise Venezuela’s economy and hold elections.

...Left to their own devices, in other words, the two sides are unlikely to reach a workable agreement. The onus is on external actors who, regrettably, have been as divided as Venezuelans themselves.  Countries close to Guaidó, those supportive of Maduro and those in between should seize this moment to put aside any maximalist position and nudge their respective allies to compromise. That will require the U.S. and its Latin American partners to rule out any suggestion of military intervention and abandon the demand that Maduro immediately resign. It will require Russia, China and Cuba to accept the need for Maduro to initiate a process leading to credible and internationally-monitored presidential elections.  It will require all stakeholders to push for the following:
  • Formation of a transitional cabinet including representatives of both chavismo and the opposition, focused on economic stabilisation, humanitarian assistance, internal security and institutional reform; ideally, neither Maduro nor Guaidó would hold the presidency during this period, though agreement on this point ought not to be a precondition for negotiations to commence; 
  • Guarantees to the military in the form of a clear framework for their future role;
  • Presidential elections under a reformed electoral commission and international monitoring.
The EU-led International Contact Group could help jump-start this process through its own quiet diplomacy....

https://www.crisisgroup.org/latin-america-caribbean/andes/venezuela/picking-pieces-after-venezuelas-quashed-uprising
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Tweet from President Trump on April 30

If Cuban Troops and Militia do not immediately CEASE military and other operations for the purpose of causing death and destruction to the Constitution of Venezuela, a full and complete embargo, together with highest-level sanctions, will be placed on the island of Cuba. Hopefully, all Cuban soldiers will promptly and peacefully return to their island!”
Subsequently he retweeted a video in which John Bolton claimed that Venezuela's Defense Minister, the chief judge of the Supreme Court and the commander of the Presidential Guard had told Juan Guido that they would transfer power from Maduro to him.  https://twitter.com/i/status/1123346471477219333

Secretary of State Pompeo tweeted that Maduro was prepared to flee to Cuba Tuesday morning until the Russians told him not to.

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An Internal Opening?

Amid the unrest, Maduro’s military commanders went on state television to proclaim their loyalty. But in a possible sign that Maduro’s inner circle could be fracturing, the head of Venezuela’s intelligence agency wrote an open letter breaking ranks.
Manuel Ricardo Cristopher Figuera said he had always been loyal to Maduro but it was now time to “rebuild the country.” He said corruption has become so rampant that “many high-ranking public servants practice it like a sport.”
“The hour has arrived for us to look for other ways of doing politics,” Figuera wrote.
Still, like past attempts to oust Maduro, the opposition seemed outmaneuvered Tuesday. The hoped for split in the military didn’t emerge and a plane that the United States claimed was standing by to ferry Maduro into exile never took off.

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Brazil will not cooperate with military intervention

Presidential spokesman General Otavio Rego Barros told reporters Brazil had completely ruled out intervening militarily in Venezuela and was not planning to allow any other country to use its territory for any potential intervention in its neighbor.


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Venezuela’s opposition put together a serious plan. For now, it appears to have failed.

....Throughout the day, however, there were mixed messages about what role, if any, the U.S. military would play in Washington’s future efforts to resolve the Venezuelan crisis.

Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said that a peaceful resolution was still desired but that “military action is possible. If that’s what’s required, that’s what the United States will do,” he told Fox Business Network. 

Asked if the U.S. military would be used to protect Guaidó, White House national security adviser John Bolton told MSNBC that President Trump “has been clear and concise on this point: All options are open. We want a peaceful transfer of power. But we are not going to see Guaidó mistreated by this regime.”

Top Pentagon officials emphasized nonmilitary options and said they had not been given orders to pre-position troops or prepare for conflict. “We’re obviously watching the situation very closely in Venezuela. The president’s made it clear that all options are on the table,” Gen. Joseph F. Dunford Jr., chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said in congressional testimony. “To date, most of our actions have been diplomatic and economic.”

Trump has shown little willingness to plunge into Venezuela, according to current and former aides, although he has already imposed sanctions on Cuba — which the administration has accused of controlling the Venezuelan military — and threatened more. Russia, the White House said in a statement late Wednesday, “must leave” Venezuela “and renounce their support of the Maduro regime.”
  
The president has occasionally mused to others that Bolton wants to get him into wars. Two advisers who have discussed Venezuela with him said Trump often brings up Florida politics, and his golf club in Doral, when talking about the subject. Both said Trump was unlikely to authorize any sort of long-term military action there.

At the same time, however, aides said he has given Bolton wide purview over Venezuela.
As he has pushed for a more aggressive policy, Bolton has angered some within and outside the White House. Even before Tuesday’s events, his staff clashed with Gen. Paul Selva, Dunford’s vice chairman, during a meeting to address the ongoing Venezuelan crisis, according to several officials with knowledge of the exchange.

The soft-spoken Air Force general was giving an update last week on the Pentagon’s view and making the case against a risky escalation by the United States when Bolton aides, including Mauricio Claver-Carone, Western Hemisphere director at the National Security Council, repeatedly interrupted and asked for military options, according to the officials.

Selva, irritated at the interruptions and confrontational style rather than the substance of any disagreement, slammed his hand down on the table, his ring hitting the wood with a sharp crack. Bolton deputy Charles Kupperman, who was chairing the meeting, adjourned the session earlier than planned, said the officials, who like others spoke on the condition of anonymity to discuss internal deliberations.

A senior administration official said Bolton’s staff was dissatisfied with Selva, who they felt had not presented sufficient military options for Venezuela as expected. Selva, according to people familiar with the interaction, believed the confrontational style of Bolton’s staff was out of line.

In a Wednesday interview with radio host Hugh Hewitt, Bolton praised a different military leader, Adm. Craig Faller, head of U.S. Southern Command, for showing “the kind of attitude we need.”
Faller, Bolton said, had responded to the Venezuelan threat by preparing his forces and saying that “we’re on the balls of our feet and ready to go.” The comment by the general came in an interview last month with Foreign Policy.

Asked at a Wednesday hearing whether the U.S. military should play any role in the overthrow of the Maduro government, however, Faller emphasized the diplomatic track.

“Our leadership has been clear: This has to be, should be, primarily a democratic transition,” Faller said. “We are in total support of the diplomacy, and we stand ready to support that effort.”
While the Pentagon has developed military options for Trump, it has urged caution in internal discussions regarding the use of force.

One worry is that any decision to mount a unilateral U.S. military intervention would jeopardize a consensus among regional partners and allies that Guaidó will need if he manages to wrest control from Maduro. Maduro has called Guaidó a U.S. “puppet,” and Venezuelans and other Latin Americans are broadly skeptical of American military intervention.

At the same time, military planners traditionally worry about operations that may be limited in intent but can quickly spiral out of control....